The CGIAR Research Program on Wheat and its lead center, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), based in Mexico, are responding to the threat of COVID-19 and taking measures to ensure our worldwide staff is as safe as possible. While we adjust to the “new normal” of social distancing, temperature checks and quarantines, we will continue to perform field and desk research as best we can, and share our progress and findings with you through our website, newsletter, and Facebook page.
times such as this, we step back and remember the vision that brings us all
here: a world free of poverty, hunger and environmental degradation. We would
not be able pursue this vision without your support.
hope you, your colleagues and loved ones stay safe and healthy. We are all in
this together and we look forward to continuing our conversation.
In celebration of International Women’s Day the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) hosted today a graduation ceremony for the first cohort of fellows of the Arab Women Leaders in Agriculture (AWLA) program.
Being the first of its kind, the program is managed by ICBA and is designed to empower women researchers to spearhead positive changes in agriculture and food security while addressing the challenges they face in their careers.
The first cohort included 22 women scientists from Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia. They completed a 10-month program from 2019 to 2020, which was delivered through 12 online R&D modules and face-to-face workshops in Tunisia and the UAE.
Speaking at the graduation ceremony, Her Excellency Razan Khalifa Al Mubarak, Managing Director of the Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD) and Chairperson of ICBA’s Board of Directors, said: “International Women’s Day is an important occasion when we celebrate women and girls around the world and showcase their invaluable contributions to different fields, including science. Unfortunately, women are still underrepresented in research and development around the world, but more so in the Middle East and North Africa. This is despite research showing that gender-balanced teams improve innovation and productivity and that women are critical to innovation. That is why it is great to see how programs like AWLA are creating opportunities for women scientists from across the Middle East and North Africa and equipping them with skills and tools to grow in their careers and make greater contributions in their communities and countries.”
For her part, Dr. Ismahane Elouafi, Director General of ICBA, said: “We are delighted to see the inaugural cohort of AWLA fellows graduating on such a special occasion – International Women’s Day. The AWLA fellowship program was able to open a door of opportunities for 22 Arab women scientists by providing them with soft skills to positively impact their communities and countries.”
“I want to thank the Islamic Development Bank, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, for their exceptional support for the program. I would also like to thank the Council for Australian-Arab Relations for supporting the study tour of two AWLA fellows,” Dr. Ismahane Elouafi added.
Dr. Tarifa Alzaabi, Deputy Director General of ICBA, remarked: “As we are celebrating International Women’s Day, it gives me a great pleasure to congratulate all AWLA fellows and commend them for the exceptional dedication they demonstrated during their AWLA journey. AWLA is a unique program that significantly contributed to our efforts to empower women in science and agriculture. AWLA extends the right skills and opportunities to fellows to boost their intellectual collaboration by exchanging ideas, good practices, and stories on how women can make a difference in agriculture. Moreover, the program offers new perspectives on research and leadership to make a positive difference not only in the professional lives of fellows but also towards the prosperity of agriculture across the nations and regions they represent.”
Ms. May Ali Babiker Eltahir, Manager at the Women and Youth Empowerment Division, the Islamic Development Bank, commented: “AWLA, through empowering young Arab women working on food, nutrition and water security issues, has contributed to the pillars of the IsDB Women’s Empowerment Policy, namely improving women’s access to services and resources and promoting women’s agency and participation.”
Mr. Hassan Damluji, Deputy Director at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, said: “Empowering women to take up leadership positions in all fields, particularly critical sectors like agriculture and science, is an essential lever towards achieving gender equality globally. AWLA is a wonderful example of partners coming together to deliver concrete solutions that help break down barriers for Arab women researchers”.
“Women make up an important part of the agricultural labor force in MENA, and any solution to the region’s critical food security challenges should ideally be evidence-based and innovative, making use of all talent by being gender-inclusive and by greatly improving cross-border collaboration,” said Mr. Victor Kommerell, Program Manager for the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (CIMMYT, ICARDA, and partners).
“I am confident this cohort of AWLA graduates from 6 countries will have a powerful impact on the future of agriculture in the region,” Mr. Victor Kommerell added.
Dr. Farah Baroudy Mikati, an AWLA fellow from Lebanon, who works as an agricultural engineer at the Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, said: “The spirit of AWLA reminded me about my ambitions and strength, especially after seeing that things like research for impact exist and can succeed. Before AWLA, I used to give less importance to some managerial knowledge, but now I consider it as a priority. In addition, I started learning project proposal writing skills through this program. In general, AWLA made me aim for more even in harsh conditions!”
“During the program, the fellows got the opportunity to learn through interactive online and classroom training, coaching and mentoring, and continuous assessment. The fellows worked on a variety of individual assignments in addition to four team-based capstone projects that connect and translate their learning and impact as the golden thread,” Mr. Ghazi Jawad Al-Jabri, Capacity Building Specialist at ICBA and AWLA Coordinator, said.
AWLA’s long-term goal is to improve food security and nutrition in the region through empowering women researchers and helping them realize their full potential. The program contributes to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals on Gender Equality (SDG 5), Climate Action (SDG 13), Life on Land (SDG 15), and Partnerships for the Goals (SDG 17).
In crop research fields, it is now a common sight to see drones or other high-tech sensing tools collecting high-resolution data on a wide range of traits – from simple measurement of canopy temperature to complex 3D reconstruction of photosynthetic canopies.
This technological approach to collecting precise plant trait information, known as phenotyping, is becoming ubiquitous on research fields, but according to experts at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and other research institutions, breeders can profit much more from these tools, when used judiciously.
In a new article in the journal Plant Science, CIMMYT Wheat Physiologist Matthew Reynolds and colleagues explain the different ways that phenotyping can assist breeding — from simple to use, “handy” approaches for large scale screening, to detailed physiological characterization of key traits to identify new parental sources — and why this methodology is crucial for crop improvement. The authors make the case for breeders to invest in phenotyping, particularly in light of the imperative to breed crops for warmer and harsher climates.
This work was supported by the International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP); the Sustainable Modernization of Traditional Agriculture (MasAgro) Project by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (SADER) of the Government of Mexico; and the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT).
collaboration and a visionary approach by both researchers and funders are
urgently needed to translate primary plant research results into real impact in
the fields, argue crop improvement experts.
For a number of reasons – including limited
interdisciplinary collaboration and a dearth of funding, revolutionary new
plant research findings are not being used to improve crops.
research” — efforts to convert basic research knowledge about plants into practical
applications in crop improvement – represents a necessary link between the
world of fundamental discovery and farmers’ fields. This kind of research is often seen as more
complicated and time consuming than basic research and less sexy than working
at the “cutting edge” where research is typically divorced from agricultural
realities in order to achieve faster and cleaner results; however, modern tools
— such as genomics, marker-assisted breeding, high throughput phenotyping of
crop traits using drones, and speed breeding techniques – are making it both
faster and cost-effective.
In a new article in Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics, wheat physiologist Matthew Reynolds of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and co-authors make the case for increasing not only funding for translational research, but the underlying prerequisites: international and interdisciplinary collaboration towards focused objectives and a visionary approach by funding organizations.
“It’s ironic,” said Reynolds. “Many breeding programs have invested in the exact technologies — such as phenomics, genomics and informatics — that can be powerful tools for translational research to make real improvements in yield and adaptation to climate, disease and pest stresses. But funding to integrate these tools in front-line breeding is quite scarce, so they aren’t reaching their potential value for crop improvement.”
Many research findings are tested for their implications for wheat improvement by the International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP) at the IWYP Hub — a centralized technical platform for evaluating innovations and building them into elite wheat varieties, co-managed by CIMMYT at its experimental station in Obregon, Mexico.
IWYP has its roots with the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT), which in 2010 formalized the need to boost both wheat yield potential as well as its adaptation to heat and drought stress. The network specializes in translational research, harnessing scientific findings from around the world to boost genetic gains in wheat, and capitalizing on the research and pre-breeding outputs of WHEAT and the testing networks of the International Wheat Improvement Network (IWIN). These efforts also led to the establishment of the Heat and Drought Wheat Improvement Consortium (HeDWIC).
“We’ve made extraordinary advances in understanding the genetic basis of important traits,“ said IWYP’s Richard Flavell, a co-author of the article. “But if they aren’t translated into crop production, their societal value is lost.”
The authors — all of
whom have proven track records in both science and practical crop improvement
— offer examples where exactly this combination of factors led to the
impactful application of innovative research findings.
Improving the Vitamin A content of maize: A variety of maize with high Vitamin A content has the potential to reduce a deficiency that can cause blindness and a compromised immune system. This development happened as a result of many translational research efforts, including marker-assisted selection for a favorable allele, using DNA extracted from seed of numerous segregating breeding crosses prior to planting, and even findings from gerbil, piglet and chicken models — as well as long-term, community-based, placebo-controlled trials with children — that helped establish that Vitamin A maize is bioavailable and bioefficacious.
Flood-tolerant rice: Weather variability due to climate change effects is predicted to include both droughts and floods. Developing rice varieties that can withstand submergence in water due to flooding is an important outcome of translational research which has resulted in important gains for rice agriculture. In this case, the genetic trait for flood tolerance was recognized, but it took a long time to incorporate the trait into elite germplasm breeding programs. In fact, the development of flooding tolerant rice based on a specific SUB 1A allele took over 50 years at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines (1960–2010), together with expert molecular analyses by others. The translation program to achieve efficient incorporation into elite high yielding cultivars also required detailed research using molecular marker technologies that were not available at the time when trait introgression started.
include new approaches for improving the yield potential of spring wheat and the
discovery of traits that increase the climate resilience of maize and sorghum.
One way researchers apply academic research to field impact
is through phenotyping. Involving the use of cutting edge technologies and
tools to measure detailed and hard to recognize plant traits, this area of
research has undergone a revolution in the past decade, thanks to more
affordable digital measuring tools such as cameras and
sensors and more powerful and accessible computing power and accessibility.
Scientists are now able to identify at a detailed scale
plant traits that show how efficiently a plant is using the sun’s radiation for
growth, how deep its roots are growing to collect water, and more — helping
breeders select the best lines to cross and develop.
Phenotyping is key to understanding the physiological and
genetic bases of plant growth and adaptation and has wide application in crop
improvement programs. Recording trait
data through sophisticated non-invasive imaging, spectroscopy, image analysis,
robotics, high-performance computing facilities and phenomics databases allows
scientists to collect information about traits such as plant development,
architecture, plant photosynthesis, growth or biomass productivity from
hundreds to thousands of plants in a single day. This revolution was the
subject of discussion at a 2016 gathering of more than 200
participants at the International Plant Phenotyping Symposium hosted
by CIMMYT in Mexico and documented in a
special issue of Plant Science.
There is currently an explosion in plant science. Scientists
have uncovered the genetic basis of many traits, identified genetic markers to
track them and developed ways to measure them in breeding programs. But most of
these new findings and ideas have yet to be tested and used in breeding
programs – wasting their potentially enormous societal value.
Establishing systems for generating and testing new
hypotheses in agriculturally relevant systems must become a priority, Reynolds
states in the article. However, for success, this will require
interdisciplinary, and often international, collaboration to enable established
breeding programs to retool. Most
importantly, scientists and funding organizations alike must factor in the long-term
benefits as well as the risks of not taking timely action. Translating a
research finding into an improved crop that can save lives takes time and
commitment. With these two prerequisites, basic plant research can and should positively
impact food security.
Authors would like to acknowledge the following funding organizations for their commitment to translational research.
The International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP) is supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) in the UK; the U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in the USA; and the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA) in Switzerland.
The Heat and
Drought Wheat Improvement Consortium (HeDWIC) is supported by the Sustainable
Modernization of Traditional Agriculture (MasAgro) Project by the Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Development (SADER) of the Government of Mexico; previous
projects that underpinned HeDWIC were supported by Australia’s Grains Research
and Development Corporation (GRDC).
Queensland Government’s Department of Agriculture and Fisheries in
collaboration with The Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) have
provided long-term investment for the public sector sorghum pre-breeding
program in Australia, including research on the stay-green trait. More
recently, this translational research has been led by the Queensland Alliance
for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI) within The University of
validation work and ASI translation and extension components with support from
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Bill and Melinda Gates
Financial support for the maize proVA work was partially provided by HarvestPlus (www.HarvestPlus.org), a global alliance of agriculture and nutrition research institutions working to increase the micronutrient density of staple food crops through biofortification. The CGIAR Research Program MAIZE (CRP-MAIZE) also supported this research.
The CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT) is led by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), with the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) as a primary research partner. Funding comes from CGIAR, national governments, foundations, development banks and other agencies, including the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
WHEAT media sponsorship connects scientists and reporters at international wheat conference
by Marcia MacNeil
A diverse group of agriculture, food security, environment
and science journalists gathered in Saskatoon, Canada recently for an intensive
course in innovative wheat research, interviews with top international scientists
and networking with peers.
The occasion was the International Wheat Congress (IWC), which convened more than 900 wheat scientists and researchers in Saskatoon, in Canada’s biggest wheat-growing province, Saskatchewan, to discuss their latest work to boost wheat productivity, resilience and nutrition.
The seven journalists were part of a group of 11 who won a competitive sponsorship offered by the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT). Seven journalists attended the conference, while another four followed the proceedings and activities from home. The 10-day immersive training included multiple daily press briefings with top scientists in climate change modeling and resilience testing, innovative breeding techniques, analysis and protection of wheat diversity and many more topics, on top of a full schedule of scientific presentations.
“The scientists were so eager to talk to us, and patient with our many questions,” said Nkechi Isaac from the Leadership newspaper group in Nigeria. “Even the director general of CIMMYT spoke with us for almost an hour.”
“It was a pleasant surprise for me.”
The journalists, who come from regions as diverse as
sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, offered support and encouragement from their
travel preparations though their time in Saskatoon and beyond – sharing story
ideas, interview and site visit opportunities, news clips and photos through a
“It is really helpful
to be connected to colleagues around the world,” said Amit Bhattacharya of the
Times of India. “I know we will continue to be a resource and network for each
other through our careers.”
The week wasn’t all interviews and note-taking. The
journalists were able to experience Saskatchewan culture, from a tour of a
wheat quality lab and a First Nations dance performance to a visit to a local
wheat farm, and even an opportunity to see Saskatoon’s newest modern art
The media sponsorship at IWC aimed to encourage informed
coverage of the importance of wheat research, especially for farmers and
consumers in the Global South, where wheat is the main source of protein and a
critical source of life for 2.5 billion people who live on less than $2 a day.
“This is the first time we’ve invested this heavily in
journalist training,” said WHEAT program director Hans Braun. “We think the
benefits – for the journalists, who gained a greater understanding of wheat
research issues, and for developing country audiences, who will be more aware
of the importance of improving wheat –– are worth it.”
A roundtable discussion with peers from Canadian news
organizations and seasoned science communications professionals and a
networking breakfast with CIMMYT scientists provided platforms for a candid
exchange on the challenges and opportunities in communicating wheat science in
A common refrain was the importance of building relationships between scientists and media professionals – because wheat science offers dramatic stories for news audiences, and an informed and interested public can in turn lead to greater public investment in wheat science. The journalists and scientists in Saskatoon have laid a solid foundation for these relationships.
The sponsored journalists are:
Senior Editor at The Times of India,
New Delhi, and a member of the team that produces the front page of India’s
largest English daily. He writes on Indian agriculture, climate change, the
monsoon, weather, wildlife and science. A 26-year professional journalist in
India, he is a Jefferson Fellow on climate change at the East-West Center,
Freelance journalist based in Dakar, Senegal, currently reporting for Deutsche Welle’s radio
service in English and French on the environment, technology, development and
youth in Africa. A former line producer for France 24 in Paris and senior
environment reporter for the daily national English newspaper Gulf News in Dubai, she also reports on
current affairs for the Africalink
news program, contributes to Radio France International’s (RFI) English
service, and serves as news producer for the Dakar-based West Africa Democracy
Deputy Editor, SciDev.Net French
edition. He is based in Douala, Cameroon, where he has been a journalist since
2002. Formerly the editor of the The
Daily Economy, he worked on the French edition of Voice of America and
Morocco economic daily LES ECO, and
writes for Forbes Africa, the French
edition of Forbes in the United States.
Science correspondent at the Daily
Monitor newspaper, Uganda, part of the Nation Media Group. A journalist since 2004, she also freelances
for publications in the United States, UK, Kenya and Nigeria among others and
has received fellowships at the World Federation of Science Journalists,
Biosciences for Farming in Africa courtesy of University of Cambridge UK and Environmental
Journalism Reporting at Sauti University, Tanzania.
Muhammad Amin Ahmed:
Senior Correspondent, Daily Dawn in
Islamabad, Pakistan. He has been a journalist for more than 40 years. Past
experience includes working at the United Nations in New York and Pakistan
Press International. He received a UN-21 Award from former U.N. Secretary
General Kofi Annan (2003).
Special Correspondent with Pakistan’s English daily The Nation at Multan. A 10-year veteran journalist and an alumnus
of the Reuters Foundation, he also worked as a reporter with the Evansville Courier and Press in Indiana,
United States. He is an ICFJ-WHO Safety 2018 Fellow (Bangkok), Asia Europe
Foundation Fellow (Brussels), and a U.S.-Pakistan Professional Partnership in
Journalism Program Fellow (Washington). He teaches mass communications at
Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan.
Deputy Editor, Leadership Friday in
Nigeria. She is also the head, Science and Technology Desk of the Leadership
Group Limited, publishers of LEADERSHIP newspapers headquartered in Abuja,
Nigeria. She is a Fellow of Cornell University’s Alliance for Science.
Executive Editor of the Dhaka Tribune,
Bangladesh’s national English newspaper. A journalist for 30 years, he is a
Cochran Fellow of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and an adjunct professor
of University of Dhaka (DU) and Independent University, Bangladesh.
Freelance science journalist based in Cairo, Egypt who has covered science,
health and environment for 10 years for such websites as the Arabic version of Scientific American, SciDev.net, and The Niles.
Executive Deputy Editor-in-Chief, High-Tech
& Commercialization Magazine, China. Since 2008, she has written about
science particularly agriculture innovation and wheat science. She has attended
several Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) Technical Workshops. In Beijing,
she helped organize a BGRI communication workshop and media outreach.
Tony Iyare: Senior Correspondent, Nigerian Democratic Report. For more than 30 years, he has covered environment, international relations, gender, media and public communication. He has worked as a stringer for The New York Times since 1992, and freelanced for the Paris-based magazine, The African Report and the U.N. Development Programme publication Choices. He was columnist at The Punch and co-authored a book: The 11-Day Siege: Gains and Challenges of Women’s Non-Violent Struggles in Niger Delta.
International gathering highlights cutting edge efforts to improve yields, nutrition, and climate change resilience of a globally vital staple food
by Julie Mollins
As many regions worldwide baked under some of the most persistent
heatwaves on record, scientists at a major conference in Canada shared data on
the impact of spiraling temperatures on wheat.
In the Sonora desert in northwestern Mexico, nighttime temperatures varied 4.4 degrees Celsius between 1981 and 2018, research from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) shows. Across the world in Siberia, nighttime temperatures rose 2 degrees Celsius between 1988 and 2015, according to Vladimir Shamanin, a professor at Russia’s Omsk State Agrarian University who conducts research with the Kazakhstan-Siberia Network on Spring Wheat Improvement.
“Although field trials across some of the hottest wheat growing environments worldwide have demonstrated that yield losses are in general associated with an increase in average temperatures, minimum temperatures at night – not maximum daytime temperatures –are actually determining the yield loss,” said Gemma Molero, the wheat physiologist at CIMMYT who conducted the research in Sonora, in collaboration with colleague Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio.
“Of the water taken up by the roots, 95% is lost from leaves via transpiration and from this, an average of 12% of the water is lost during the night. One focus of genetic improvement for yield and water-use efficiency for the plant should be to identify traits for adaptation to higher night temperatures,” Molero said, adding that nocturnal transpiration may lead to reductions of up to 50% of available soil moisture in some regions.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in October that temperatures may become an average of 1.5 degrees Celsius warmer in the next 11 years. A new IPCC analysis on climate change and land use due for release this week, urges a shift toward reducing meat in diets to help reduce agriculture-related emissions from livestock. Diets could be built around coarse grains, pulses, nuts and seeds instead.
Scientists attending the International Wheat Congress in Saskatoon, the city at the heart of Canada’s western wheat growing province of Saskatchewan, agreed that a major challenge is to develop more nutritious wheat varieties that can produce bigger yields in hotter temperatures.
As a staple crop, wheat provides 20% of all human calories consumed worldwide. It is the main source of protein for 2.5 billion people in the Global South. Crop system modeler Senthold Asseng, a professor at the University of Florida and a member of the International Wheat Yield Partnership, was involved in an extensive study in China, India, France, Russia and the United States, which demonstrated that for each degree Celsius in temperature increase, yields decline by 6%, putting food security at risk.
Wheat yields in South Asia could be cut in half due to chronically high temperatures, Molero said. Research conducted by the University of New South Wales, published in Environmental Research Letters also demonstrates that changes in climate accounted for 20 to 49% of yield fluctuations in various crops, including spring wheat. Hot and cold temperature extremes, drought and heavy precipitation accounted for 18 to 4% of the variations.
At CIMMYT, wheat breeders advocate a comprehensive
approach that combines conventional, physiological and molecular breeding
techniques, as well as good crop management practices that can ameliorate heat
shocks. New breeding technologies are making use of wheat landraces and wild
grass relatives to add stress adaptive traits into modern wheat – innovative approaches that have led to new
heat tolerant varieties being grown by farmers in warmer regions of Pakistan,
“HeDWIC is a pre-breeding program that aims to deliver genetically diverse advanced
lines through use of shared germplasm and other technologies,” Reynolds said in
Saskatoon. “It’s a knowledge-sharing and training mechanism, and a platform to deliver proofs
of concept related to new technologies for adapting wheat to a range of heat
and drought stress profiles.”
Aims include reaching agreement
across borders and institutions on the most promising research areas to achieve
climate resilience, arranging trait research into a rational framework, facilitating
and developing a bioinformatics cyber-infrastructure, he said, adding that
attracting multi-year funding for international collaborations remains a
area of climate research at CIMMYT involves the development of an affordable
alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers to reduce planet-warming
greenhouse gas emissions. In certain plants, a trait known as biological
nitrification inhibition (BNI) allows them to suppress the loss of nitrogen
from the soil, improving the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and use by
themselves and other plants.
“Every year, nearly a fifth of the world’s fertilizer is used to grow wheat, yet the crop only uses about 30% of the nitrogen applied, in terms of biomass and harvested grains,” said Victor Kommerell, program manager for the multi-partner CGIAR Research Programs (CRP) on Wheat and Maize led by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
has the potential to turn wheat into a highly nitrogen-efficient crop: farmers
could save money on fertilizers, and nitrous oxide emissions from wheat farming
could be reduced by 30%.”
Excluding changes in land use such as deforestation, annual greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture each year are equivalent to 11% of all emissions from human activities. About 70% of nitrogen applied to crops in fertilizers is either washed away or becomes nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide, according to Guntur Subbarao, a principal scientist with JIRCAS.
To exploit this roots-based characteristic,
breeders would have to breed this trait into plants, said Searchinger, who
presented key findings of the report in Saskatoon, adding that governments and
research agencies should increase research funding.
Other climate change mitigation efforts must
include revitalizing degraded soils, which affect about a quarter of the
planet’s cropland, to help boost crop yields. Conservation agriculture
techniques involve retaining crop residues on fields instead of burning and
clearing. Direct seeding into soil-with-residue and agroforestry also can play
a key role.
More than 800 global experts will gather in Saskatoon to strategize on ways to meet projected nutritional needs of 60% more people by 2050.
SASKATOON, Canada (CIMMYT) — Amid global efforts to intensify the nutritional value and scale of wheat production, scientists from all major wheat growing regions in the world will gather from July 21 to 26, 2019 at the International Wheat Congress in Saskatoon, the city at the heart of Canada’s western wheat growing province, Saskatchewan. The CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT), led by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), is a founding member of the G20 Wheat Initiative, a co-host of the conference.
Wheat provides 20% of all human calories consumed worldwide. In the Global South, it is the main source of protein and a critical source of life for 2.5 billion people who live on less than $2 (C$2.60) a day.
In spite of its key role in combating hunger and malnutrition, the major staple grain faces threats from climate change, variable weather, disease, predators and many other challenges. Wheat’s vital contribution to the human diet and farmer livelihoods makes it central to conversations about the rural environment, agricultural biodiversity and global food security.
More than 800 delegates, including researchers from the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat, CIMMYT, the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), the International Wheat Yield Partnership (IWYP), Cornell University’s Delivering Genetic Gain in Wheat project (DGGW), the University of Saskatchewan and many other organizations worldwide will discuss the latest research on wheat germplasm.
“We must solve a complex puzzle,” said Martin Kropff, CIMMYT’s director general. “Wheat must feed more people while growing sustainably on less land. Wheat demand is predicted to increase 60% in the next three decades, while climate change is putting an unprecedented strain on production.”
“The scientific community is tackling this challenge head-on, through global collaboration, germplasm exchange and innovative approaches. Researchers are looking at wheat’s temperature response mechanisms and using remote sensing, genomics, bio-informatics and other technologies to make wheat more tolerant to heat and drought,” Kropff said.
The congress is the first major gathering of the wheat community since the 2015 International Wheat Conference in Sydney, Australia.
CGIAR and CIMMYT scientists will share the latest findings on:
State-of-the-art approaches for measuring traits to speed breeding for heat and drought tolerance
Breeding durum (pasta) wheat for traits for use in bread products
New sources of diversity — including ancient wheat relatives — to create aphid-resistant wheat and other improved varieties
DNA fingerprinting to help national partners identify gaps in improved variety adoption
For more details on schedule and scientists’ presentations, click here.
Research shows that more than 60% of wheat varietal releases since 1994 were CGIAR-related.
Low- and middle-income countries are the primary focus and biggest beneficiaries of CGIAR wheat research, but high-income countries reap substantial rewards as well. In Canada, three-quarters of the wheat area is sown to CGIAR-related cultivars and in the United States almost 60% of the wheat area was sown to CGIAR-related varieties, according to the research.
WHEN: July 21-26, 2019
The opening ceremony and lectures will take place on Monday, July 22, 2019 from 08:50 to 10:50 a.m.
The Premier of Saskatchewan, Scott Moe, will give welcoming remarks at the opening ceremony. Other attending dignitaries include the Mayor of Saskatoon, Charlie Clark, and the President of the University of Saskatchewan, Peter Stoicheff.
Contacts: For further information, or to arrange interviews, please contact:
Marcia MacNeil: firstname.lastname@example.org
Julie Mollins: email@example.com
About CGIAR: CGIAR is a global research partnership for a food secure future dedicated to reducing poverty, enhancing food and nutrition security, and improving natural resources.
About the CGIAR Research Program on Wheat: Joining advanced science with field-level research and extension in lower- and middle-income countries, the Agri-Food Systems CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT) works with public and private organizations worldwide to raise the productivity, production and affordable availability of wheat for 2.5 billion resource-poor producers and consumers who depend on the crop as a staple food. WHEAT is led by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), with the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) as a primary research partner. Funding for WHEAT comes from CGIAR and national governments, foundations, development banks and other public and private agencies, in particular the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). www.wheat.org
About CIMMYT: The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is the global leader in publicly funded maize and wheat research and related farming systems. Headquartered near Mexico City, CIMMYT works with hundreds of partners throughout the developing world to sustainably increase the productivity of maize and wheat cropping systems, thus improving global food security and reducing poverty. CIMMYT is a member of CGIAR and leads the CGIAR Research Programs on Maize and Wheat, and the Excellence in Breeding Platform. The center receives support from national governments, foundations, development banks and other public and private agencies.
The report describes work with national and global partners using state of the art technology to measure traits and performance for faster development of high-yielding, heat- and drought- varieties; rapidly diagnosing diseases in farmers’ fields; supporting gender equality in agricultural innovations, and much more.
With its national partners, WHEAT released 48 new CGIAR-derived wheat varieties to farmers in 2018, and developed 11 innovations related to farm management practices or social sciences.
Based on a rigorous large-scale study spanning five decades
of wheat breeding progress under cropping systems with low, medium and high
fertilizer and chemical plant protection usage, the authors conclude that
modern wheat breeding practices aimed at high-input farming systems have
promoted genetic gains and yield stability across a wide range of environments
and management conditions.
In other words, wheat breeding benefits not only large-scale
and high-input farmers but also resource-poor, smallholder farmers who do not
use large amounts of fertilizer, fungicide, and other inputs.
This finding underscores the efficiency of a centralized
breeding effort to improve livelihoods across the globe – the philosophy behind
the breeding programs of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT) over the past 50 years.
It also contradicts a commonly held belief that breeding for
intensive systems is detrimental to performance under more marginal growing
environments, and refutes an argument by Green Revolution critics that breeding
should be targeted to resource-poor farmers.
“Given that wheat is the most widely grown crop in the
world, sown annually on around 220 million ha and providing approximately 20%
of human calories and protein, the social and economic implications are large,“
Among other implications,
The study found that modern breeding has reduced
groups of genes (haplotypes) with negative or neutral effects – a finding which
will help breeders combine positive haplotypes in the future, including for
The study demonstrates the benefits of breeding
for overall yield potential, which — given that wheat is grown over a wider
range of environments, altitudes and latitudes than any other crop, with widely
ranging agronomic inputs – has significant cost-saving implications.
Braun and Reynolds acknowledge that the longstanding beliefs
challenged by this study have a range of influences, from concern about rural
livelihoods, to the role of corporate agribusiness and the capacity of Earth’s
natural resources to sustain 10 billion people.
While they welcome the conclusions as a validation of their
work, they warn against seeing the study as “a rubber stamp for all things
‘high-input’” and encourage openness to new ideas as the need arises.
“If the climate worsens, as it seems destined to, we must
certainly be open to new ways of doing business in crop improvement, while
having the common sense to embrace proven technologies, ” they conclude.