Posts Tagged ‘training’

Keep wheat diseases at bay: 11th annual training on stem rust note taking and germplasm evaluation at KALRO Njoro, Kenya

by Jerome Bossuet

Scientists at this year’s annual training on stem rust note taking and germplasm evaluation. Photo: CIMMYT

As part of the Delivering Genetic Gain in Wheat (DGGW) project, the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in collaboration with Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) and Cornell University recently trained 24 researchers (8 women & 16 men) from 9 countries across the world on wheat rust disease diagnosis and germplasm evaluation. The training took place on October 5-13, 2019 at the KALRO research station in Njoro, Kenya, where CIMMYT’s wheat breeding and rust screening facility is located.

Hands-on skills for efficient breeding and disease control

CIMMYT has held such hands-on trainings annually since 2009, benefitting over 220 scientists, mostly wheat breeders and pathologists from national programs of developing countries worldwide.

“These trainings aim at nurturing the next generation of wheat scientists in the different wheat growing areas, harmonizing cost-effective wheat breeding techniques and building a global community of practice, so important for our future food security,’’ said training coordinator, Mandeep Randhawa, Wheat Breeder and Wheat Rust Pathologist based at CIMMYT Kenya. Dr. Randhawa manages overall activities of the stem rust phenotyping platform Njoro.

The training focuses particularly on studying resistance to rapidly evolving fungal diseases like black (stem), yellow (stripe) and brown (leaf) rusts. CIMMYT’s Global Wheat Program in Africa uses such trainings to establish new partnerships and continue efforts in wheat breeding and combating emerging challenges across the different farming regions.

The participants learned how to record stem rust field notes to identify different types and levels of resistance, and the interaction with  wheat experts helped them better understand how wheat rust pathogens keep evolving. Continuous breeding of wheat varieties with not-only high yield potential but with resistance to rust and non-rust diseases was emphasized.    

An important skill the trainees gained during the course was to visually identify and score stem rust symptoms accurately. The percentage of rust coverage on the stem is used to score plants’ susceptibility, e.g. moderately susceptible (MS) or moderately resistant (MR) host reactions to infection.

“Harmonizing the way wheat breeders score stem rust severity in different countries like Ethiopia or Bangladesh is very important, so we could compare research data in any global breeding program like DGGW and for disease surveillance systems,’’ explained Emeritus Professor Robert McIntosh, one of the trainers from the Plant Breeding Institute-Cobbitty, University of Sydney, Australia.

Despite its importance to the global food and nutrition security, wheat remains susceptible to very destructive rust diseases. Rusts can lead to total crop failure when the climate conditions are favorable for the fungus and varieties grown by farmers are susceptible. The wheat scientific community has to remain vigilant on rust outbreaks globally as these pathogens evolve quickly. The stem rust race Ug99, reported for the first time in Uganda in 1999, was able to overcome the stem rust resistance gene Sr31 present in many popular varieties planted by farmers in the region. In 2013-14, wheat variety Digalu in Ethiopia and Robin in Kenya became susceptible to a new stem rust race with virulence to gene Srtmp. By 2019, fourteen different races in Ug99 lineage have been identified across Eastern and Southern Africa.

“You can train someone for one year to score for rust resistance, but you learn all your life,’’ added McIntosh. “In the era of molecular breeding, it is remarkable to see that visual phenotyping recognition still plays a strong role in safeguarding one of the most important cereal.”

“This is the first time I am doing this rust scoring. This will be important for my job of certifying new rust resistant wheat varieties, to know how to rank one wheat variety from other popular check,’’ noted seed health inspector, Philip Chemeltorit from the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services (KEPHIS) Nakuru. A durum wheat breeder, Ms. Divya Ambati from Indore, India learned how the rust symptoms vary between durum and bread wheat germplasm, while wheat scientists, Ms. Sourour Ayed and Ms. Rifka Hammami, from Tunisia were more interested in how to tackle Septoria, another fungal disease prevalent in their country.

“This training course is a great opportunity for national programs to have first-hand information on the performance of their varieties and advanced lines evaluated at the phenotyping platform from respective countries. It is important to understand the different types of resistance that can be used in breeding. Strategies of combining different race specific and adult plant resistance (APR) genes is important for researchers to develop varieties with durable resistance,” said Sridhar Bhavani, Head of Wheat Rust Pathology at CIMMYT Mexico.

Back to the breeder’s equation

Developing and distributing rust resistant wheat varieties is regarded as the most cost-effective and eco-friendly control measure, especially in developing countries, where the majority are resource-poor smallholder farmers with limited access to fungicides to control the disease.

Ravi Singh, Head of Wheat Improvement at CIMMYT Mexico explained the new wheat breeding priorities, where breeders should focus on cost-effectiveness:

‘’Wheat scientists must go back to the blackboard how to increase genetic gains in a cost-effective way. What new methods and tools would increase the number of lines screened (intensity), with good accuracy and shorter breeding cycles?’’

CIMMYT Mexico for instance has just invested in a new large field greenhouse in Toluca research station to produce four generations of wheat annually, instead of two currently. The global wheat program will be more responsive to new pests and disease like the recent wheat blast outbreak that affected Bangladesh.

‘’But not all is about speed breeding,’’ warned Singh. “The wheat research should remain holistic and continue asking the right questions to well capture farmers and wheat processors’ needs when defining future breeding targets or product profiles. Wheat yield potential remain very important, but you have to ‘package other traits like water-use efficiency, disease resistance, nutrition, profitability etc.’’’

Godwin Macharia, Centre Director and Wheat Breeder of the KALRO- Njoro Centre discussed progress in wheat improvement through CIMMYT-KALRO partnership:

 “Wheat varieties Kenya Kasuku and Kenya Jacana with significant yield advantage over current commercial varieties and moderate levels of resistance to stem rust were released by KEPHIS in 2019. Moreover, several high-yielding rust resistant wheat lines are in the national performance testing towards identification and release of suitable varieties for commercialization in Kenya growing environments. Seed multiplication is in process with enough volumes of breeder seed of the new varieties available for further bulking and distribution to growers for cultivation in the 2020 season.’’

Applications now open for journalist training at International Wheat Congress

Aerial photo of Saskatoon. Photo credit: IWC

The CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT) is sponsoring 10 journalists based in developing countries — with travel, registration and accommodation— to attend the International Wheat Congress, the premiere international gathering of scientists working on wheat research, taking place July 21-26, 2019 in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

The 10 journalists will be selected based on the following criteria:

  • writing experience and skills
  • interest in the topic
  • established media credentials
  • recommendation by the editor of a publication for which they have written
  • plans to publish future articles on wheat research.

Selected journalists will travel to Saskatchewan to attend the conference proceedings and participate in exclusive training, mentoring and networking activities aimed at building working relationships between journalists and researchers in developing countries, and facilitating greater awareness and enhanced media coverage of wheat science, agricultural innovations and food security.

Journalists will have the opportunity to learn about cutting-edge scientific projects and achievements in wheat, and to network and learn from communicators, researchers and fellow journalists working on the topic of food security. 

Wheat provides 20 percent of the calories and protein people consume globally, and livelihoods for an estimated 80 million farmers in the developing world. Demand for wheat is growing rapidly — by 2050 it is predicted to increase by 70 percent – while crop production is challenged by pests, diseases and climate change-related heat and drought.  

Wheat scientists are working on cutting-edge solutions to build farmers’ resilience to these challenges, including developing disease-resistant, nutritious and climate-resilient wheat varieties, sharing sustainable farming practices and conserving biodiversity.

The media play an important role in raising awareness of the challenges facing farmers — and the importance of research that helps them. 

The International Wheat Congress will bring an expected 1000 attendees to participate in sessions with more than 100 speakers from the wheat research community, covering issues from wheat growing areas throughout the world. Topics will include wheat diversity and genetic resources; genomics; breeding, physiology and technologies; environmental sustainability and management of production systems; resistance to stresses; and nutrition, safety and health.

Applications should be submitted online through this online form by Friday, March 22, 2019 (deadline extended.)

https://cimmyt.formstack.com/forms/iwc_journalist_application_form

For any questions or issues, contact wheatcrp@cgiar.org.

Joining advanced science with field-level research and extension in lower- and middle-income countries, the Agri-Food Systems CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT) works with public and private organizations worldwide to raise the productivity, production and affordable availability of wheat for 2.5 billion resource-poor producers and consumers who depend on the crop as a staple food.  WHEAT is led by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), with the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) as a primary research partner.  Funding for WHEAT comes from CGIAR and national governments, foundations, development banks and other public and private agencies, in particular the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR),  the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). www.wheat.org

Wheat blast screening and surveillance training in Bangladesh

Photo: CIMMYT/Tim Krupnik

Fourteen young wheat researchers from South Asia recently attended a screening and surveillance course to address wheat blast, the mysterious and deadly disease whose surprise 2016 outbreak in southwestern Bangladesh devastated that region’s wheat crop, diminished farmers’ food security and livelihoods, and augured blast’s inexorable spread in South Asia.

Held from 24 February to 4 March 2018 at the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Jessore, as part of that facility’s precision phenotyping platform to develop resistant wheat varieties, the course emphasized hands-on practice for crucial and challenging aspects of disease control and resistance breeding, including scoring infections on plants and achieving optimal development of the disease on experimental wheat plots.

Cutting-edge approaches tested for the first time in South Asia included use of smartphone-attachable field microscopes together with artificial intelligence processing of images, allowing researchers identify blast lesions not visible to the naked eye.

“A disease like wheat blast, which respects no borders, can only be addressed through international collaboration and strengthening South Asia’s human and institutional capacities,” said Hans-Joachim Braun, director of the global wheat program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), addressing participants and guests at the course opening ceremony. “Stable funding from CGIAR enabled CIMMYT and partners to react quickly to the 2016 outbreak, screening breeding lines in Bolivia and working with USDA-ARS, Fort Detrick, USA to identify resistance sources, resulting in the rapid release in 2017 of BARI Gom 33, Bangladesh’s first-ever blast resistant and zinc enriched wheat variety.”

Cooler and dryer weather during the 2017-18 wheat season has limited the incidence and severity of blast on Bangladesh’s latest wheat crop, but the disease remains a major threat for the country and its neighbors, according to P.K. Malaker, Chief Scientific Officer, Wheat Research Centre (WRC) of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI).

“We need to raise awareness of the danger and the need for effective management, through training courses, workshops, and mass media campaigns,” said Malaker, speaking during the course.

The course was organized by CIMMYT, a Mexico-based organization that has collaborated with Bangladeshi research organizations for decades, with support from the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), CGIAR Research Program on Wheat (WHEAT), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute (BWMRI).

Speaking at the closing ceremony, N.C.D. Barma, WRC Director, thanked the participants and the management team and distributed certificates. “The training was very effective. BMWRI and CIMMYT have to work together to mitigate the threat of wheat blast in Bangladesh.”

Other participants included Jose Mauricio Fernandes, EMBRAPA-Passo Fundo, Brazil; Pawan Singh, CIMMYT wheat pathologist; T.P. Tiwari, Timothy J. Krupnik, and D.B. Pandit, CIMMYT-Bangladesh; Bahadur Mia, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU); and scientists from BMWRI and BARI, the Nepal Agricultural Research Council NARC, and Assam Agricultural University (AAU), India.

Call for Applications for Basic Wheat Improvement Course

By Katie Lutz/CIMMYT

EL BATAN, Mexico (November 25, 2015) – Applications for the Basic Wheat Improvement Course (BWIC) are due 15 December.

The BWIC is a three-month intensive program at the Campo Experimental Norman E. Borlaug (CENEB) in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, that targets young and mid-career scientists, focusing on applied breeding techniques in the field.

The training program has benefited national research programs since its inception. The increasing number of wheat scientists in major wheat producing countries reflects the great need and interest of national programs in training young scientists. One of the most frequent requests from countries and national programs is for more trained scientists.

Reflections of a Wheat Trainee: Zaki Afshar, Afghanistan

Zaki Afshar in the field at CIMMYT Afghanistan after the 2015 Basic Wheat Improvement Course

Zaki Afshar in the field at CIMMYT Afghanistan
Photo Courtesy: Zaki Afshar/ CIMMYT

By Katie Lutz/CIMMYT

CIUDAD OBREGON, Mexico (September 10, 2015)- Zaki Afshar grew up in the small city of Puli Khumri in Northern Afghanistan, visiting his father’s seven-hectare (ha) farm every weekend. Growing up in a farming community where the staple crops are wheat and rice, Afshar saw the impact agriculture could have on a community.

“A big part of why I chose agriculture was because I saw how hard the farmers worked and still suffered,” said Afshar. “I wanted to know how I could help them. Why were they not using the advanced technologies I saw available in other parts of the world?”

According to The United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 60 percent of Afghan citizens rely on agriculture to sustain their livelihoods and families. Wheat is the chief crop in Afghanistan, covering 2.5 million ha and providing about 60 percent of daily calorie intake for an average Afghan.

“We have a very basic agriculture system,” explained Afshar. “You will only see machinery used for plowing and trashing, not for sowing or even harvesting.”

Afshar attended Balkh University in Mazari Sharif, receiving a degree in Agricultural Plant Science. He currently works at the CIMMYT Afghanistan office as a project associate as in the Wheat Improvement Program.

Forty Years of Wheat Training at CIMMYT

By Katie Lutz/CIMMYT

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Photo: Katie Lutz/CIMMYT

EL BATAN, Mexico (May 26, 2015)- “After three months, you will be a part of the CIMMYT family,” said Amor Yahyaoui, Global Wheat Program (GWP) Training Officer, as he addressed the 30 participants in the Basic Wheat Improvement Course (BWIC) on their first day at CIMMYT Headquarters, El Batán.

The 2015 wheat trainees hail from 14 countries, and have varying degrees of experience and different backgrounds. “These scientists come in from all different spectrums, but this course puts them all on the same level, with one objective: to learn,” explained Yahyaoui.

The BWIC is a three-month intensive program at the Campo Experimental Norman E. Borlaug (CENEB) in Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, that targets young and mid-career scientists, focusing on applied breeding techniques in the field.